Science has mostly developed more specialization and fragmentation (Hristovski et al., 2016). This is attributed to the fact that each discipline relies on various levels of structure of the matter. A reductionist approach, combined with a particular analysis technique, predominates with few exceptions and is an integrated feature in a multidisciplinary scenario.

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This is reflected in the term “Effects of,” which is an expression that represents a particular mode of research, but is obsolete in the ECSS abstracts, in which acquisition methods, strategies and inductive statistics are commonly and uncontroversially exchanged across different disciplines. In particular, the reductionist approach significantly simplifies the form of integration between the organizational tiers in living systems (from genes to social systems) and the ability to combine biological and social sciences seems to be minimal (Loland, 2013). Indeed, the prevalent “horizontal” or “instrumental” type of interdisciplinarity is an expectation of convergence, but in fact there is no clear scope for the integration of sport science.


To achieve the task of convergence, Newell (2001) opts for a “critical” interdisciplinary approach that integrates not only approaches and techniques, but also theories and principles. The goal of this form of collaboration between disciplines is to provide a better understanding of the dynamic nature of sport-related phenomena (e.g. fatigue, injury prevention and commitment to sport practices) and to satisfy the requirements practical implementations¬† (including sports competitions, performance, health improvement, well-being, fitness or social relationships).